Hierarchical state machine in embedded systems

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Embedded system design revolves around efficiency and precision, demanding sophisticated structures like Hierarchical state machines (HSM) to manage complexity while ensuring optimal functionality. 

At its core, Hierarchical State Machines is a powerful model used to organize complex systems by breaking them into manageable states and transitions. 

In Embedded System, HSMs provide a clear visualization of the system’s behavior and facilitate efficient decision-making. They consist of multiple layers of states, enabling a hierarchical arrangement that simplifies intricate system structures.

In this article, we’ll delve deep into Hierarchical State Machines, discussing their significance, implementation, and the role they play in Embedded System.

State Transition Explosion 

One primary challenge in embedded systems is the State Transition Explosion, where the number of states and transitions grows exponentially with the system’s complexity. Hierarchical State Machines addresses this issue by organizing states hierarchically, thereby reducing the complexity of transition management.

The DRY principle 

The DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself) principle is fundamental in Hierarchical State Machines. It emphasizes the need to eliminate redundancy by defining each state and its transitions only once, promoting code reusability and maintainability. In Embedded System Design, adhering to the DRY principle within Hierarchical State Machines ensures streamlined and concise code.

State Nesting Hierarchy 

Hierarchical State Machines (HSMs) are a way to organize states within a system in a nested structure. Imagine states as different modes or conditions that a system can be in—like “idle,” “processing,” or “error handling.” 

With Hierarchical State Machines, these states can have sub-states or child states within them, creating a hierarchy. The benefit of this hierarchy is that you can group similar behaviors or functionalities within a parent state. 

For instance, if you have several states that share a common set of actions or operations, you can encapsulate these shared behaviors in a parent state. This encapsulation promotes code modularity, meaning you can compartmentalize and manage the code for specific functionalities more easily.

Now, in Reactive Systems used in IoT solutions and services, this modular approach becomes highly beneficial. IoT systems often deal with numerous states and complex interactions between them. By using Hierarchical State Machines and encapsulating common behaviors in parent states, you create reusable components. These reusable components or functionalities can then be applied across different states or even different parts of the system.

This reusability aspect is crucial for system adaptability and scalability in the context of IoT and Hierarchical State Machines. When new functionalities or states need to be added or when the system needs to scale to accommodate more devices or processes, having these encapsulated and reusable components makes it easier to adapt and expand the system. Instead of re-creating functionalities from scratch, you can leverage these modular components, saving time and effort while ensuring consistency and reliability across the system.

In short, Hierarchical State Machines facilitate a structured way of organizing states, promoting code modularity, and enabling the reusability of functionalities. In the realm of Reactive Systems in IoT, this reusability greatly contributes to system adaptability and scalability, allowing for more efficient development, maintenance, and growth of complex interconnected systems.

Reuse Behavior in Reactive Systems 

Reuse of behavior in reactive systems refers to the practice of utilizing or repurposing existing functionalities, actions, or patterns within systems that respond to stimuli from their environment, known as reactive systems. These systems react to changes or events in real-time and adapt their behavior accordingly.

There are a few ways behavior reuse occurs in reactive systems:

  1. Component Reusability
  2. Design Patterns
  3. Functional Composition
  4. Event Handling and Handlers

By emphasizing behavior reuse, developers can streamline development, reduce redundancy, improve maintainability, and create more scalable and flexible reactive systems. This approach also promotes consistency in behavior across different parts of the system, enhancing overall system reliability and predictability.

For example, the concept of “Ultimate Hook,” explains how Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) maintain a consistent appearance across applications. It involves a hierarchical event processing system where events are sent to the application first for customization. If unhandled, these events then default to the system’s standard appearance. This setup allows applications to personalize their behavior while ensuring a unified look-and-feel across the GUI.

This showcases programming-by-difference, where the application developer is required to write code solely for the variations from the standard system behavior.

Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP) 

The Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP), a key tenet of object-oriented programming, holds importance in HSM design. It asserts that objects of a superclass should be replaceable with objects of their subclasses without affecting the system’s functionality. This principle ensures the smooth integration of different state hierarchies within Hierarchical State Machines, preserving system integrity.

Implementation State Hierarchy in C

Implementing Hierarchical State Machines in C demands meticulous attention to detail. Leveraging pointers to functions and structures allows for the construction of state machines. Each state, transition, and hierarchy needs careful representation in code to ensure the system behaves as intended. This implementation in Embedded System Design demands both precision and efficiency.


In the realm of Embedded System, Hierarchical State Machines stand as a pivotal tool for managing complexity, promoting code modularity, and ensuring efficient system behavior. 

Their role in facilitating scalable, adaptable, and maintainable systems in IoT solutions and services cannot be overstated.

Embracing Hierarchical State Machines aligns with the demands of modern embedded systems, enabling engineers to navigate complexity effectively while adhering to essential design principles like DRY, LSP, and state nesting hierarchies.

What Is The History Of Water Turbine Technology? A Blog by Technosoft Engineering

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Water Turbines have been a pivotal part of our journey harnessing nature’s power for centuries. These incredible machines, also known as Hydropower Turbines, have a fascinating history deeply intertwined with human innovation and the quest for renewable energy sources. Let’s dive into the captivating tale of how water turbine technology came to be and evolved over time.

A Brief History Of Hydropower  

Some of the first innovations in using water for power were developed in China between 202 BC and 9 AD, during the Han Dynasty. Trip hammers were used to pound and hull grain, break ore, and make early paper. They were powered by a vertically set water wheel.

The availability of water power has long been linked to the acceleration of economic growth. When Richard Arkwright established Cromford Mill in England’s Derwent valley in 1771 to spin cotton and thus establish one of the world’s first factory systems, he used hydropower as an energy source.

Key Inventions In Hydropower Turbine Technology:

Some of the most significant advances in hydropower technology took place in the first half of the nineteenth century. In 1827, French engineer Benoit Fourneyron created the first Fourneyron reaction turbine, capable of producing around 6 horsepower.

The Francis turbine, developed by British-American engineer James Francis in 1849, is still the most widely used water turbine in the world today. Lester Allan Pelton, an American inventor, invented the Pelton wheel, an impulse water turbine, in the 1870s and patented it in 1880.

In the early twentieth century, Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan invented the Kaplan turbine, a propeller-type turbine with adjustable blades.

In 1878, the world’s first hydroelectric project powered a single lamp at the Cragside country house in Northumberland, England. Four years later, the first plant to serve a system of private and commercial customers opened in Wisconsin, USA, and hundreds of hydropower plants were operational within a decade.

Hydropower plants were built in North America at Grand Rapids, Michigan (1880), Ottawa, Ontario (1881), Dolgeville, New York (1881), and Niagara Falls, New York (1881). They were used to power mills and light some local structures.

By the turn of the century, the technology had spread throughout the world, with Germany developing the first three-phase hydro-electric system in 1891 and Australia launching the first publicly owned plant in the Southern Hemisphere in 1895. The Edward Dean Adams Power Plant, the world’s largest hydroelectric development at the time, was built at Niagara Falls in 1895.

As the emerging technology spread around the world, hundreds of small hydropower plants were in operation by 1900. In China, a hydroelectric station with a capacity of 500 kW was built on the Xindian creek near Taipei in 1905.

In 20th century Mechanical engineering design services play a pivotal role in optimizing the efficiency and functionality of water turbine systems.

What Is The History Of Hydropower Turbine? 

Experiments on the mechanics of reaction wheels conducted in the 1750s by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler and his son Albert found application approximately 75 years later. Jean-Victor Poncelet of France proposed the idea of an inward-flowing radial turbine in 1826, which was the direct forerunner of the modern water turbine. This machine had a vertical spindle and a fully enclosed runner with curved blades. Water entered radially inward and exited below the spindle.

Samuel B. Howd of the United States patented and built a similar machine in 1838. James B. Francis improved on Howd’s design by adding stationary guide vanes and shaping the blades so that water could enter shock-free at the correct angle. His runner design, known as the Francis turbine (see above), is still the most popular for medium-high heads. James Thomson, a Scottish engineer, proposed improved control by adding coupled and pivoted curved guide vanes to ensure proper flow directions even at part load.

In 1909, the first pumped storage plant with a capacity of 1,500 kilowatts was constructed near Schaffhausen, Switzerland. It used a separate pump and turbine, resulting in a relatively large and only marginally cost-effective system. The first plant in the United States, built on the Rocky River in Connecticut in 1929, was also only marginally profitable. Following the success of a plant in Flatiron, Colorado, major work on pumped-storage hydropower began in the United States in the mid-1950s. This facility, built in 1954, was outfitted with a 9,000-kilowatt reversible-pump turbine.

In highly industrialized countries, such as the United States and the nations of western Europe, most potential sites for hydropower have already been tapped. Environmental concerns relating to the impact of large dams on the upstream watercourse and to the possible effect on aquatic life add to the likelihood that only a few large hydraulic plants will be built in the future.

Who Discovered Water Turbine?

Benoît Fourneyron

French water turbine inventor Benoît Fourneyron was born on October 31, 1802, in Saint-Étienne, France, and passed away on July 31, 1867, in Paris.

He was a mathematician’s son who entered the new Saint-Étienne engineering school in 1816 and graduated with the first class. While employed at Le Creusot’s ironworks, he researched Claude Burdin’s (his former professor) concept for a novel kind of waterwheel that Burdin dubbed a “turbine.”

What Is the Theory Of The Water Turbine?

Water in action generates hydroelectric power. Water must be moving in order to generate electricity. This kinetic energy turns the blades of a water turbine, converting it to mechanical (machine) energy. The turbine shaft drives a generator, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology is known as hydroelectric power or “hydropower” for short because water is the initial source of electrical energy.

The hydrologic cycle, which is powered by solar energy, moves water constantly. As precipitation, atmospheric water reaches the earth’s surface as part of the hydrologic cycle. Some of this water evaporates, but much of it percolates into the soil or runs off the surface. Rain and melting snow eventually reach ponds, lakes, reservoirs, or oceans, where evaporation occurs constantly. Water is a renewable resource because of the hydrologic cycle.

Twentieth Century – A Century Of Rapid Innovations

The twentieth century saw rapid changes and innovations in hydropower facility design. Many engineering services companies start specializing in the design, installation, and maintenance of water turbines for various applications.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s policies, including the New Deal in the 1930s, aided in the construction of several multipurpose projects such as the Hoover and Grand Coulee dams, with hydropower accounting for 40% of the country’s electricity generation by 1940.

State-owned utilities built significant hydropower developments throughout Western Europe, the Soviet Union, North America, and Japan from the 1940s to the 1970s, spurred initially by World War II and then by strong post-war economic and population growth.

Low-cost hydropower was viewed as one of the most effective ways to meet rising energy demand, and it was frequently linked to the development of energy-intensive industries such as aluminum smelters and steelworks.

Brazil and China became world leaders in hydropower in the late twentieth century. The Itaipu Dam, which spans Brazil and Paraguay, first opened in 1984 with a capacity of 12,600 MW; it has since been expanded and upgraded to 14,000 MW, and is now only surpassed in size by China’s 22,500 MW Three Gorges Dam.

Decadal capacity growth slowed in the late 1980s and then fell in the 1990s. This was due to increasing financial constraints and concerns about the environmental and social impacts of hydropower development, which caused many projects around the world to be halted.

Lending and other forms of assistance from international financial institutions (IFIs), most notably the World Bank, dried up in the late 1990s, affecting hydropower construction in the developing world in particular.

Why Choose Technosoft Engineering?

At Technosoft Engineering, we stand out for several reasons that make us a top choice for your engineering needs:

  • With over 700 engineers and designers across diverse disciplines, Technosoft boasts a robust team to tackle complex projects.
  • Our portfolio showcases expertise in fields like mechanical, electrical, software, and industrial engineering, offering one-stop solutions. We have decades of expertise in solving business challenges.
  • Though our wide range of skills includes software simulations, design, testing, and prototyping, Technosoft still focuses on keeping up with the latest technological advancements and innovation trends. We integrate modern-era strategies into our solutions, providing state-of-the-art services to clients.
  • Many clients appreciate our commitment to quality. We often adhere to rigorous quality standards, ensuring the best knowledgeable and professional teams of problem solvers who can deliver the best outcomes and exceed industry benchmarks.
  • Technosoft Engineering is renowned for its cutting-edge Computer aided engineering services, offering a comprehensive suite of solutions that revolutionize product design and development.

At Technosoft Engineering services company, we’re more than a service provider; we’re your dedicated ally in achieving engineering excellence. Your success is our motivation, and we’re here to make it happen, every step of the way. Choose Technosoft Engineering, and let’s innovate together!

What are the different Types of Turbines and classifications?

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Turbines, the mechanical powerhouses driving various industries and generating energy, stand as pivotal components in modern engineering.

Harnessing the kinetic energy from various sources, water turbines, steam turbines, gas turbines, and wind turbines play instrumental roles in converting this energy into useful forms like electricity or mechanical power.

Turbines operate on the principle of energy conversion of a moving fluid or gas into rotational mechanical energy.

Let’s delve deeper into the world of turbines, exploring their types, classifications, and unique contributions to power generation and mechanical operations.

What is a Turbine ?

A turbine is a mechanical device that harnesses the energy from a fluid flow (such as water, steam, or gas) and converts it into useful work, usually rotational mechanical energy. It consists of blades or a rotor that spins when exposed to a moving fluid. Turbines are widely used in various applications, like generating electricity in power plants, powering aircraft engines, producing propulsion for ships, and even extracting energy from wind. The engineering services company specializes in designing and optimizing turbines for renewable energy generation.

Turbines are classified as

  1. Water turbine 
  2. Steam turbine 
  3. Gas turbine 
  4. Wind turbine 

Water turbines

Water turbines are devices used to convert the energy from flowing or falling water into mechanical or electrical energy. They’re a key component in hydroelectric power plants and various water-powered systems. Effective water turbine operation often requires a comprehensive integration of mechanical and electrical engineering services to optimize performance and ensure seamless functionality.

Water turbines two categories

  1.  Impulse Turbines 
  2.  Reaction Turbines 

(1) Impulse turbines

In hydroelectric power plants, impulse turbines are a type of water turbine that use the energy of moving water to make electricity. They operate based on the principle of converting the kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy, which is then transformed into electrical energy.

Impulse turbines come in two categories:

A: Pelton turbine

Lester Ella Pelton invented the Pelton wheel turbine in 1870, and it is used in high-head, low-flow power plants.On the runner of the turbine, there is a spoon-shaped bucket that directs the strong, fast water from the nozzle to turn the drive wheel against the rotating series. When the high-speed water strikes the bucket blades, they begin to move anticlockwise. The Pelton wheel performs best when the drop height is 50–2000 m and the flow rate is 4–15 m3/s.

B: Cross-flow turbine

Anthony Michel invented the Crossflow turbine in 1903, and it is used in low heads of 10-70 meters with a power output of 5-100 kW.This turbine obtains energy by reducing water velocity while maintaining pressure, which is why cross-flow turbines are a good example of impulse turbines.

(2) Reaction Turbines

Reaction turbines produce torque by responding to pressure or by accelerating water flow.

A reaction turbine, as the name implies, operates on the principle of reaction force, which is felt by the turbine blades when water flows over them.

The first set of blades in the reaction turbine is fixed and convert water pressure energy into kinetic energy.

Water then flows through the runner blades. The moving blades are shaped like an aerofoil.

Reaction turbines fall into two categories: 

A: Francis Turbine 

The main components of the Francis turbine are:

  • Volute casing
  • Runner blades
  • Guide vanes
  • Draft tube

Water flows from the cashing through the guide vanes, which are arranged on the periphery to direct the water to the runner blades.

Water enters the rotor blades radially through the guide vanes. The Francis turbine’s runner is unique in design. Because of the pressure difference created by the aerofoil structure, water begins to rotate as it enters radially.

The entire pressure energy of the water is converted into kinetic energy during the process, so the water, after passing through the runner process, is at low pressure.

When the water flows over the blades, the kinetic energy is converted as well. The energy from the turbine is determined by the net pressure difference from the inlet to the outlet.

B: Kaplan Turbine

Water enters the Kaplan turbine through the casing and flows through the guide blade.

In the axial portion, water enters the runner blades. The runner blades are designed for specific aerofoil structures, such as those used in the Francis turbine.

Steam turbine

Steam turbines convert the thermal energy in steam into mechanical energy, which is then used to generate electricity.

Sir Charles Parsons invented it in 1884. When a high-energy fluid passes over the structure of an airfoil, This causes a pressure difference, which generates lift force, which is then converted into mechanical energy.

Flow Energy → Mechanical Energy

Coal and nuclear fuel are the primary materials used to generate steam in turbines, which is then used to generate electricity in thermal power plants. Mechanical and electrical engineering services play a pivotal role in the design, installation, and maintenance of steam turbines.

Steam turbine two categories:

  1. Condensing   
  2.  Non Condensing 

(1) Condensing

A condensing turbine is a type of steam turbine used in power plants to generate electricity. It operates by expanding high-pressure steam through a series of turbine blades, causing the rotor to turn and drive a generator, producing electrical power.

(2) Non Condensing

A non condensing turbine is a type of steam turbine used in power generation. Unlike a condensing turbine, which exhausts steam to a condenser for re-use, a non condensing turbine discharges exhaust steam directly to the atmosphere.

Steam turbine differ based on Steam extraction

  1. Straight-Through Turbines 
  2. Bleeder or Extraction Turbines 
  3. Controlled- (or Automatic) Extraction Turbines 

(1) Straight-Through Turbines

Straight-through turbines refer to a type of turbine where the flow of fluid, typically water or air, passes straight through the turbine blades without changing direction.

(2) Bleeder or Extraction Turbines

Bleeder turbines and extraction turbines are both types of steam turbines used in power generation. They operate based on similar principles but have distinct differences in their functionality.

(3) Controlled- (Or Automatic-) Extraction Turbines

Controlled-extraction turbines, also known as automatic-extraction turbines, are types of steam turbines used in power plants. These turbines are designed to extract steam at different points along the turbine’s expansion process, allowing for multiple stages of energy extraction.

Gas Turbine

A gas turbine is a type of internal combustion engine. It is also known as a combustion turbine. Fresh atmospheric air is compressed as it passes through a compressor.

The energy is then added by spraying fuel into the air and igniting it, resulting in a high-temperature flow from the combustion.

Natural Gas → Mechanical Energy

Gas turbines convert natural gas or liquid fluid into mechanical energy, which is then used to generate electricity to power homes and businesses, as well as aircraft, trains, ships, electrical generators, and even tanks. When it comes to turbines, the incorporation of mechanical and electrical engineering services is crucial for the best results.

Gas turbines come in four categories:

  1.  Turbojet Engines 
  2.  Turboprop Engines 
  3.  Turbofan Engines 
  4.  Turboshaft Engines 

(1) Turbojet Engines

Turbojet engines were the first type of gas turbine. Despite their appearance, they operate on the same principles as reciprocal engines: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. Air is moved at high speed to the fuel inlet and ignitor of the combustion chamber in this type of engine. By expanding air, the turbine causes accelerated exhaust gases.

(2) Turboprop Engines

A turboprop engine is the second type of gas turbine. It is a turbojet engine connected to a propeller by a gear system. The operation of a gas turbine of this type is as follows:

  • The turbojet drives a shaft that is connected to a transmission gearbox.
  • A transmission box slows the spinning process, and the transmission mechanism is attached to the slowest moving gear.
  • The air propeller spins and produces thrust.

(3) Turbofan Engines

The best turbojets and turboprops in the world are paired with turbofan engines. A duct fan can connect a turbofan engine to the front of a turbojet engine. The fan then provides additional thrust, aids in engine cooling, and reduces engine noise output.

(4) Turboshaft Engines

Turboshaft engines, which are mostly found on helicopters, are the fourth type of gas turbine. The main distinction is that turboshaft engines use the majority of their power to spin turbines rather than driving them out the back of the vehicle. Turboshaft engines are turbojet engines with a large shaft attached to the back.

Wind Turbine

Wind power generation, as the name suggests, is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power.

Wind energy works on a simple principle: a series of sails and blades mounted around a rotor catch the wind and convert its kinetic energy into rotational energy, producing electricity.

Wind turbines have two categories

  1. Horizontal axis machines  
  2.  Vertical-axis machines  

(1) Horizontal axis machines

Horizontal-axis machines typically refer to turbines or windmills where the main rotor shaft and electrical generator are aligned horizontally. In the context of wind turbines, horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are the most commonly used type today.

(2) Vertical-axis machines

Vertical-axis machines refer to a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft is arranged vertically. Unlike horizontal-axis wind turbines, which have blades rotating around a horizontal axis, vertical-axis turbines have blades that spin around a vertical axis.


This was the first blog in the series of upcoming blogs.

We got an introduction to

Water turbine

Steam turbine

Gas turbine

Wind turbine

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